Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth’s southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is home to the Scottish Parliament and the seat of the monarchy in Scotland. The city is also home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery.
Historically part of Midlothian, the city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, literature, sciences and engineering. The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1582 and is now one of four in the city. The city’s historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom’s second most popular tourist destination after London, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood Palace, the churches of St. Giles, Greyfriars and the Canongate, and the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th century. Edinburgh’s Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999.